Humans are the chief factor in fox mortality. Snaring, fox control programs, and hunting with hounds readily come to mind, however humans can also destroy habitat and automobiles pose a serious threat to a fox scavenging for road kill. The London Wildlife Trust’s web site suggests an annual death rate of 60% in London’s urban fox populations, as many as half being due to car accidents.
Captive red foxes may live to twelve years or more, though prospects are much less promising in the wild. Mortality is highest in the fox’s first year of life; cubs are vulnerable to predation and juveniles sometimes lack the experience needed to survive. Perhaps two or three cubs will survive out of a litter of six. Assuming he lives to adulthood, a red fox can expect to live for approximately 3 years.